Amateur Extra Class Practice Test

Select the most correct answer for each question, then submit your practice test to check your score. This practice test randomly pulls one question from each topic in the Amateur Extra pool.

Good Luck!


What is the name of the process that shows that a square wave is made up of a sine wave plus all its odd harmonics?

Fourier analysis
Vector analysis
Numerical analysis
Differential analysis


What are the principal frequencies that appear at the output of a mixer circuit?

Two and four times the original frequency
The square root of the product of input frequencies
The two input frequencies along with their sum and difference frequencies
1.414 and 0.707 times the input frequency


What indicator is required to be used by U.S.-licensed operators when operating a station via remote control and the remote transmitter is located in the U.S.?

/ followed by the USPS two-letter abbreviation for the state in which the remote station is located
/R# where # is the district of the remote station
/ followed by the ARRL Section of the remote station
No additional indicator is required


What best describes a pull-up or pull-down resistor?

A resistor in a keying circuit used to reduce key clicks
A resistor connected to the positive or negative supply line used to establish a voltage when an input or output is an open circuit
A resistor that ensures that an oscillator frequency does not drift
A resistor connected to an op-amp output that prevents signals from exceeding the power supply voltage


What is a common method of generating an SSB signal using digital signal processing?

Mixing products are converted to voltages and subtracted by adder circuits
A frequency synthesizer removes the unwanted sidebands
Varying quartz crystal characteristics emulated in digital form
Signals are combined in quadrature phase relationship


What is the process of normalization with regard to a Smith chart?

Reassigning resistance values with regard to the reactance axis
Reassigning reactance values with regard to the resistance axis
Reassigning impedance values with regard to the prime center
Reassigning prime center with regard to the reactance axis


What privileges are authorized in the U.S. to persons holding an amateur service license granted by the government of Canada?

None, they must obtain a U.S. license
All privileges of the Amateur Extra Class license
The operating terms and conditions of the Canadian amateur service license, not to exceed U.S. Amateur Extra Class license privileges
Full privileges, up to and including those of the Amateur Extra Class license, on the 80, 40, 20, 15, and 10 meter bands


What logical operation is performed by an exclusive NOR gate?

It produces logic 0 at its output only if all inputs are logic 0
It produces logic 1 at its output only if all inputs are logic 1
It produces logic 0 at its output if only one input is logic 1
It produces logic 1 at its output if only one input is logic 1


Which of the following component package types would be most suitable for use at frequencies above the HF range?

Axial lead
Radial lead
Surface mount


Which of the following types of signals can be relayed through a linear transponder?

FM and CW
PSK and packet
All these choices are correct


What is current in the primary winding of a transformer called if no load is attached to the secondary?

Magnetizing current
Direct current
Excitation current
Stabilizing current


Why are short connections used at microwave frequencies?

To increase neutralizing resistance
To reduce phase shift along the connection
To increase compensating capacitance
To reduce noise figure


What is a solid-state relay?

A relay using transistors to drive the relay coil
A device that uses semiconductors to implement the functions of an electromechanical relay
A mechanical relay that latches in the on or off state each time it is pulsed
A semiconductor passive delay line


Why can an attenuator be used to reduce receiver overload on the lower frequency HF bands with little or no impact on signal-to-noise ratio?

The attenuator has a low-pass filter to increase the strength of lower frequency signals
The attenuator has a noise filter to suppress interference
Signals are attenuated separately from the noise
Atmospheric noise is generally greater than internally generated noise even after attenuation


Which VHF amateur bands have frequencies authorized for space stations?

6 meters and 2 meters
6 meters, 2 meters, and 1.25 meters
2 meters and 1.25 meters
2 meters


What is the modulation index of an FM-phone signal having a maximum carrier deviation of plus or minus 6 kHz when modulated with a 2 kHz modulating frequency?



What happens to the magnitude of a pure reactance when it is converted to a susceptance?

It is unchanged
The sign is reversed
It is shifted by 90 degrees
It becomes the reciprocal


How is color information sent in analog SSTV?

Color lines are sent sequentially
Color information is sent on a 2.8 kHz subcarrier
Color is sent in a color burst at the end of each line
Color is amplitude modulated on the frequency modulated intensity signal


What is a folded dipole antenna?

A dipole one-quarter wavelength long
A type of ground-plane antenna
A half-wave dipole with an additional parallel wire connecting its two ends
A dipole configured to provide forward gain


What is the most common data rate used for HF packet?

48 baud
110 baud
300 baud
1200 baud


What is the magnitude of the impedance of a series RLC circuit at resonance?

High, as compared to the circuit resistance
Approximately equal to capacitive reactance
Approximately equal to inductive reactance
Approximately equal to circuit resistance


What three test loads are used to calibrate an RF vector network analyzer?

50 ohms, 75 ohms, and 90 ohms
Short circuit, open circuit, and 50 ohms
Short circuit, open circuit, and resonant circuit
50 ohms through 1/8 wavelength, 1/4 wavelength, and 1/2 wavelength of coaxial cable


Which of the following amateur bands most frequently provides long-path propagation?

80 meters
20 meters
10 meters
6 meters


What is the purpose of the series capacitor in a gamma-type antenna matching network?

To provide DC isolation between the feed line and the antenna
To cancel the inductive reactance of the matching network
To provide a rejection notch that prevents the radiation of harmonics
To transform the antenna impedance to a higher value


What is the definition of symbol rate in a digital transmission?

The number of control characters in a message packet
The duration of each bit in a message sent over the air
The rate at which the waveform changes to convey information
The number of characters carried per second by the station-to-station link


What is the triangulation method of direction finding?

The geometric angles of sky waves from the source are used to determine its position
A fixed receiving station plots three headings to the signal source
Antenna headings from several different receiving locations are used to locate the signal source
A fixed receiving station uses three different antennas to plot the location of the signal source


What is the primary function of an external earth connection or ground rod?

Reduce received noise
Lightning protection
Reduce RF current flow between pieces of equipment
Reduce RFI to telephones and home entertainment systems


What transmitter frequencies would cause an intermodulation-product signal in a receiver tuned to 146.70 MHz when a nearby station transmits on 146.52 MHz?

146.34 MHz and 146.61 MHz
146.88 MHz and 146.34 MHz
146.10 MHz and 147.30 MHz
173.35 MHz and 139.40 MHz


What is the purpose of Q1 in the circuit shown in Figure E7-2?

It provides negative feedback to improve regulation
It provides a constant load for the voltage source
It controls the current supplied to the load
It provides D1 with current
Circuit Diagram


When scheduling EME contacts, which of these conditions will generally result in the least path loss?

When the moon is at perigee
When the moon is full
When the moon is at apogee
When the MUF is above 30 MHz


Which of the following operating arrangements allows an FCC-licensed U.S. citizen to operate in many European countries, and alien amateurs from many European countries to operate in the U.S.?

CEPT agreement
IARP agreement
ITU reciprocal license
All these choices are correct


What is one advantage of the JT65 mode?

Uses only a 65 Hz bandwidth
The ability to decode signals which have a very low signal-to-noise ratio
Easily copied by ear if necessary
Permits fast-scan TV transmissions over narrow bandwidth


Which of the following amplifier types reduces even-order harmonics?

Class C
Class AB


Which amateur stations may be operated under RACES rules?

Only those club stations licensed to Amateur Extra Class operators
Any FCC-licensed amateur station except a Technician Class
Any FCC-licensed amateur station certified by the responsible civil defense organization for the area served
Any FCC-licensed amateur station participating in the Military Auxiliary Radio System (MARS)


How does the gain of an ideal operational amplifier vary with frequency?

It increases linearly with increasing frequency
It decreases linearly with increasing frequency
It decreases logarithmically with increasing frequency
It does not vary with frequency


What is the approximate physical length of an air-insulated, parallel conductor transmission line that is electrically 1/2 wavelength long at 14.10 MHz?

7.0 meters
8.5 meters
10.6 meters
13.3 meters


What type of computer program technique is commonly used for modeling antennas?

Graphical analysis
Method of Moments
Mutual impedance analysis
Calculus differentiation with respect to physical properties


How can linearly polarized Yagi antennas be used to produce circular polarization?

Stack two Yagis fed 90 degrees out of phase to form an array with the respective elements in parallel planes
Stack two Yagis fed in phase to form an array with the respective elements in parallel planes
Arrange two Yagis perpendicular to each other with the driven elements at the same point on the boom fed 90 degrees out of phase
Arrange two Yagis collinear to each other with the driven elements fed 180 degrees out of phase


Which of the following is a common use of a Schottky diode?

As a rectifier in high current power supplies
As a variable capacitance in an automatic frequency control circuit
As a constant voltage reference in a power supply
As a VHF/UHF mixer or detector


Which of the following best describes the Volunteer Examiner accreditation process?

Each General, Advanced and Amateur Extra Class operator is automatically accredited as a VE when the license is granted
The amateur operator applying must pass a VE examination administered by the FCC Enforcement Bureau
The prospective VE obtains accreditation from the FCC
The procedure by which a VEC confirms that the VE applicant meets FCC requirements to serve as an examiner


If a station in a message forwarding system inadvertently forwards a message that is in violation of FCC rules, who is primarily accountable for the rules violation?

The control operator of the packet bulletin board station
The control operator of the originating station
The control operators of all the stations in the system
The control operators of all the stations in the system not authenticating the source from which they accept communications


Which of the following parameters does a spectrum analyzer display on the vertical and horizontal axes?

RF amplitude and time
RF amplitude and frequency
SWR and frequency
SWR and time


How does the spread spectrum technique of frequency hopping work?

If interference is detected by the receiver it will signal the transmitter to change frequencies
If interference is detected by the receiver it will signal the transmitter to wait until the frequency is clear
A binary bit stream is used to shift the phase of an RF carrier very rapidly in a pseudorandom sequence
The frequency of the transmitted signal is changed very rapidly according to a pseudorandom sequence also used by the receiving station


Which of the following factors determines ground losses for a ground-mounted vertical antenna operating in the 3 MHz to 30 MHz range?

The standing wave ratio
Distance from the transmitter
Soil conductivity
Take-off angle


What is one type of electrical interference that might be caused by a nearby personal computer?

A loud AC hum in the audio output of your station receiver
A clicking noise at intervals of a few seconds
The appearance of unstable modulated or unmodulated signals at specific frequencies
A whining type noise that continually pulses off and on


Which of the following indicates that a silicon NPN junction transistor is biased on?

Base-to-emitter resistance of approximately 6 to 7 ohms
Base-to-emitter resistance of approximately 0.6 to 0.7 ohms
Base-to-emitter voltage of approximately 6 to 7 volts
Base-to-emitter voltage of approximately 0.6 to 0.7 volts


Which of the following oscillator circuits are commonly used in VFOs?

Pierce and Zener
Colpitts and Hartley
Armstrong and deForest
Negative feedback and balanced feedback


What type of polarization is best for ground-wave propagation?



Which point on Figure E5-1 best represents the impedance of a series circuit consisting of a 300-ohm resistor and a 19-picofarad capacitor at 21.200 MHz?

Point 1
Point 3
Point 7
Point 8
Circuit Diagram


What is a crystal lattice filter?

A power supply filter made with interlaced quartz crystals
An audio filter made with four quartz crystals that resonate at 1kHz intervals
A filter using lattice-shaped quartz crystals for high-Q performance
A filter with narrow bandwidth and steep skirts made using quartz crystals