What is transequatorial propagation?

  1. Propagation between two mid-latitude points at approximately the same distance north and south of the magnetic equator
  2. Propagation between points located on the magnetic equator
  3. Propagation between a point on the equator and its antipodal point
  4. Propagation between points at the same latitude


What is the approximate maximum range for signals using transequatorial propagation?

  1. 1000 miles
  2. 2500 miles
  3. 5000 miles
  4. 7500 miles


What is the best time of day for transequatorial propagation?

  1. Morning
  2. Noon
  3. Afternoon or early evening
  4. Late at night


What is meant by the terms "extraordinary" and "ordinary" waves?

  1. Extraordinary waves describe rare long-skip propagation compared to ordinary waves, which travel shorter distances
  2. Independent waves created in the ionosphere that are elliptically polarized
  3. Long-path and short-path waves
  4. Refracted rays and reflected waves


Which amateur bands typically support long-path propagation?

  1. Only 160 meters to 40 meters
  2. Only 30 meters to 10 meters
  3. 160 meters to 10 meters
  4. 6 meters to 2 meters


Which of the following amateur bands most frequently provides long-path propagation?

  1. 80 meters
  2. 20 meters
  3. 10 meters
  4. 6 meters


What happens to linearly polarized radio waves that split into ordinary and extraordinary waves in the ionosphere?

  1. They are bent toward the magnetic poles
  2. They become depolarized
  3. They become elliptically polarized
  4. They become phase locked


What is the term for the long path opening that exists between two points on the Earth which are simultaneously near sunrise and sunset?

  1. Transequatorial
  2. Sporadic E
  3. Long-path
  4. Grayline


At what time of year is sporadic E propagation most likely to occur?

  1. Around the solstices, especially the summer solstice
  2. Around the solstices, especially the winter solstice
  3. Around the equinoxes, especially the spring equinox
  4. Around the equinoxes, especially the fall equinox


Why is chordal hop propagation desirable?

  1. The signal experiences less loss compared to multi-hop using Earth as a reflector
  2. The MUF for chordal hop propagation is much lower than for normal skip propagation
  3. Atmospheric noise is lower in the direction of chordal hop propagation
  4. Signals travel faster along ionospheric chords


At what time of day can sporadic E propagation occur?

  1. Only around sunset
  2. Only around sunset and sunrise
  3. Only in hours of darkness
  4. Any time


What is the primary characteristic of chordal hop propagation?

  1. Propagation away from the great circle bearing between stations
  2. Successive ionospheric refractions without an intermediate reflection from the ground
  3. Propagation across the geomagnetic equator
  4. Signals reflected back toward the transmitting station