What is transequatorial propagation?

  1. Propagation between two mid-latitude points at approximately the same distance north and south of the magnetic equator
  2. Propagation between any two points located on the magnetic equator
  3. Propagation between two continents by way of ducts along the magnetic equator
  4. Propagation between two stations at the same latitude


What is the approximate maximum range for signals using transequatorial propagation?

  1. 1000 miles
  2. 2500 miles
  3. 5000 miles
  4. 7500 miles


What is the best time of day for transequatorial propagation?

  1. Morning
  2. Noon
  3. Afternoon or early evening
  4. Late at night


What is meant by the terms extraordinary and ordinary waves?

  1. Extraordinary waves describe rare long skip propagation compared to ordinary waves which travel shorter distances
  2. Independent waves created in the ionosphere that are elliptically polarized
  3. Long path and short path waves
  4. Refracted rays and reflected waves


Which amateur bands typically support long-path propagation?

  1. 160 meters to 40 meters
  2. 30 meters to 10 meters
  3. 160 meters to 10 meters
  4. 6 meters to 2 meters


Which of the following amateur bands most frequently provides long-path propagation?

  1. 80 meters
  2. 20 meters
  3. 10 meters
  4. 6 meters


Which of the following could account for hearing an echo on the received signal of a distant station?

  1. High D layer absorption
  2. Meteor scatter
  3. Transmit frequency is higher than the MUF
  4. Receipt of a signal by more than one path


What type of HF propagation is probably occurring if radio signals travel along the terminator between daylight and darkness?

  1. Transequatorial
  2. Sporadic-E
  3. Long-path
  4. Gray-line


At what time of year is Sporadic E propagation most likely to occur?

  1. Around the solstices, especially the summer solstice
  2. Around the solstices, especially the winter solstice
  3. Around the equinoxes, especially the spring equinox
  4. Around the equinoxes, especially the fall equinox


What is the cause of gray-line propagation?

  1. At midday, the Sun super heats the ionosphere causing increased refraction of radio waves
  2. At twilight and sunrise, D-layer absorption is low while E-layer and F-layer propagation remains high
  3. In darkness, solar absorption drops greatly while atmospheric ionization remains steady
  4. At mid-afternoon, the Sun heats the ionosphere decreasing radio wave refraction and the MUF


At what time of day is Sporadic-E propagation most likely to occur?

  1. Around sunset
  2. Around sunrise
  3. Early evening
  4. Any time


What is the primary characteristic of chordal hop propagation?

  1. Propagation away from the great circle bearing between stations
  2. Successive ionospheric reflections without an intermediate reflection from the ground
  3. Propagation across the geomagnetic equator
  4. Signals reflected back toward the transmitting station


Why is chordal hop propagation desirable?

  1. The signal experiences less loss along the path compared to normal skip propagation
  2. The MUF for chordal hop propagation is much lower than for normal skip propagation
  3. Atmospheric noise is lower in the direction of chordal hop propagation
  4. Signals travel faster along ionospheric chords


What happens to linearly polarized radio waves that split into ordinary and extraordinary waves in the ionosphere?

  1. They are bent toward the magnetic poles
  2. Their polarization is randomly modified
  3. They become elliptically polarized
  4. They become phase-locked