Which ionospheric layer is closest to the surface of Earth?
Where on Earth do ionospheric layers reach their maximum height?
Why is the F2 region mainly responsible for the longest distance radio wave propagation?
What does the term "critical angle" mean, as used in radio wave propagation?
Why is long-distance communication on the 40-meter, 60-meter, 80-meter, and 160-meter bands more difficult during the day?
What is a characteristic of HF scatter?
What makes HF scatter signals often sound distorted?
Why are HF scatter signals in the skip zone usually weak?
What type of propagation allows signals to be heard in the transmitting station's skip zone?
What is Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) propagation?
Which ionospheric layer is the most absorbent of long skip signals during daylight hours on frequencies below 10 MHz?